A function call terminates if it returns to its caller or throws an exception. A function call does not terminate if it goes into an infinite loop, halts execution of the program (gracefully or not), or jumps in such a way that it does not return or throw an exception that could be caught by its caller.
Taking termination into account, we can model a C++ function by
a nontotal relation from proper pre-states to post-states.
A state is proper if it is not
(see section 2.8.2 Formal Model of States);
bottom represents infinite looping and other kinds of
A pre-state may or may not be related to a post-state by the relation
specified in a Larch/C++ specification,
and if it is related to a post-state, that post-state could be
(A pre-state that is not related to a post-state value is one for which
execution is "refused" [Nelson89] [Hesselink92].
Such relations cannot be implemented in C++, but are useful for purposes
of program refinement.)
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